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Violence and Victimization: A Study of Violent and Sex Offenders Unknown to the Police


Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents and Recruits of 1997 (published in 2001)

Series ch-x: Vol. 15

Due to the general conscription in Switzerland, the survey covered around 70 percent of the Swiss males at age 20. After excluding insincere answers, the database contains 21,314 valid observations.

The Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents and Recruits ch-x is one of the oldest regularly conducted surveys worldwide!

The 900 questions covered all aspects of the males' biography and the (potential) offending behavior during he twelve months before the recruits' training.
Are there a substantial number of felons who remain undetected by law enforcement over long periods of time? Do offenders get involved in crime simply because of bad luck or because of mental disorders or other factors? These are just a few of the questions that criminologists often have to answer. A study of 21,347 male army recruits and 1,160 male nonrecruits for comparison purposes was conducted on the topic of violence in 1997. This provided an ideal opportunity for criminologists to examine serious offending.
Given the intimate and delicate nature of some items, participants were given the freedom, not to answer in every single question.
Download the flyer

the book is out of print, but you can download it here for free.

Haas, H. & Cusson, M. (2015). Comparing theories' performance in predicting violence. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 38, 75-83. doi 10.1016/j.ijlp.2015.01.010. Download


After having filled out the anonymous questionaire, the recruits put it in a sort of ballot box.

Aspects of methodology

Haas, H. (2004). Doing Research with Large Databases: Opportunities and Challenges of the Swiss Recruits' Study. Online Publikation vom Nov. 2004 - Nov. 2006 auf der Homepage der Ecole des sciences criminelles der Universität Lausanne.


Thus complete confidentiality was visibly assured to the participants from the start.

Hard-core multi-recidivists are responsible for the majority of all crime

Recent criminological research abroad and with some delay also in Switzerland, based on new data and multivariate analyses has confirmed the results found in 2001.

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